Mind Mindedness o la capacidad del adulto para tratar al niño(a) como un individuo con mente: Nuevas perspectivas para el estudio de la interacción entre el(la) niño(a) preescolar y sus figuras de apego


Claudia Carvacho

Chamarrita Farkas

María Pía Santelices


A partir de los 3 años de edad, el(la) niño(a) preescolar adquiere la habilidad para razonar sobre sus propias emociones, creencias y deseos, por lo que, además de una respuesta sensible, necesita de una actitud mentalizante del adulto que lo ayude a tomar conciencia de su mente y a comprender su mundo interno a través del lenguaje. En este contexto, el constructo de Mind Mindedness permite conceptualizar esta capacidad del adulto significativo(a), para comprender en mejor medida la emergencia de la teoría de la mente y el vínculo de apego en el(la) niño(a) preescolar. Este artículo expone una revisión del desarrollo teórico y empírico que está a la base del constructo Mind Mindedness y discute sus principales aportes al estudio, comprensión e intervención en la interacción entre el(la) niño(a) preescolar y su figura de apego.


Palabras clave
sensibilidad materna, función reflexiva, Mind Mindedness, preescolar
Artículos de revisión


Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E. & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, USA.

Adrián, J., Clemente, R. & Villanueva, L. (2007). Mothers’ use of cognitive state verbs in picture-book reading and the development of children’s understanding of mind: a longitudinal study, Child Development, 78(4), 1052-1067.

Arnott, B. & Meins, E. (2007). Links between antenatal attachment representations, post-natal mind mindedness, and infant attachment security: A preliminary study of mothers and fathers. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 71, 132-149.

Atkinson, L., Goldberg, S., Raval, V., Pederson, D., Benoit, D., Moran, G., Poulton, L., Myhal., N., Zwiers, M., Gleason, K. & Leung, E. (2005). On the relation between maternal state of mind and sensitivity in the prediction of infant attachment security. Developmental Psychology, 41, 42-53.

Baron-Cohen, S. (1994). How to build a baby that can read minds: Cognitive mechanisms in mindreading. Current Psychology of Cognition, 13(5), 513-552.

Belsky, J. (1999). Interactional and contextual determinants of attachment security. In J. Cassidy and P. Shaver (eds.) Handbook of attachment: Theory, Research and clinical applications. New York: Guildford Press.

Besoain, C. & Santelices, M. P. (2009). Transmisión intergeneracional del apego y función reflexiva materna: una revisión. Terapia Psicológica, 27(1), 113-118.

Bost, N., Shin, N., McBride, B., Brown, G., Vaughn, B., Coppola, G., Verissimo, M., Monteiro, L., Korth, B. (2006). Maternal secure base scripts, children’s attachment security and mother – child narrative styles. Attachment & Human Development. 8(3), 241-260.

Bowlby, J. (1969). El vínculo afectivo. Buenos Aires: Paidós.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment (2da. ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Bornstein, M., Tamis-LeMonda, C., Hahn, Ch. & Haynes, M. (2008). Maternal responsiveness to young children at three ages: Longitudinal analysis of a multidimensional, modular, and specific parenting construct. Developmental psychology in the public domain, 44, 867-874.

Bradford, W. (2008). Toward a theory of how young children learn to read in the ZDP: implications for research and practice. Thesis submitted to the faculty of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for the degree of Master of Science in Human Development. Blacksburg, Virginia.

Bretherton, I., Ridgeway, D. & Cassidy, J. (1990). Assessing internal working models of the attachment relationship. An attachment story completion task for 3-year-olds. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Crittenden, P. (2002). Nuevas implicaciones clínicas de la teoría del apego. Valencia: Promolibros.

Crittenden, P. (2004). Preschool Assessment of Attachment Manual. Unpublished manuscript available from the author.

Crittenden, P. (2005). Care-Index para infantes (nacimiento-15 meses): Manual de codificación. Family Relations Institute, Miami, FL, USA.

Crittenden, P. (2006). A dynamic maturational model of attachment. ANZJFT, 27, 105-115.

De Wolff, M. & Van Ijzendoorn, M. (1997). Sensitivity and attachment: A meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment. Child Development, 68(4), 571-591.

Dunn, J., & Cutting, A. (1999). Understanding others, and individual differences in friendship interactions in young children. Social Development, 8, 201-219.

Ereky-Stevens, K. (2008). Associations between mothers’ sensitivity to their infants’ internal states and children’s later understanding of mind and emotion. Infant and Child Development, 17, 527-543.

Etzion-Carasso, A. & Oppenheim, D. (2000). Open Mother preschooler communications: relations with early secure attachment. Attachment and Human Development, 2, 347- 370.

Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Moran, G. & Higgit, A. (1991). The capacity for understanding mental state: The reflective Self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13, 200-217.

Fonagy, P., Target, M., Steele, H. & Steele, M. (1998), Reflective- Functioning Manual, version 5.0, for Application to Adult Attachment Interviews, Londres, University College London.

Fonagy, P. (1999). Persistencias transgeneracionales del apego: Una nueva teoría. Revista de Psicoanálisis, Aperturas Psicoanalíticas, 3, 17-25.

Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E. & Target, M. (2004). Affect regulation, mentalization and development of the self. New York: Other Press.

Isabella, R. A. & Belsky, J. (1991). Interactional Synchrony and the origins of infant-mother attachment: A replication study. Child development, 62, 373-384.

Isabella, R. A. (1993). Origins of attachment: Maternal interactive behavior across the first year. Child Development, 64, 605-621.

Koren-Karie, N., Oppenheim, D., Dolev, S., Sher, E., & Etzion- Carasso, A. (2002). Mothers’ insightfulness regarding their infants’ internal experience: Relations with maternal sensitivity and infant attachment. Developmental Psychology, 38(4), 534-542.

Laranjo, J., Bernier, A. & Meins, E. (2008). Associations between maternal mind mindedness and infant attachment security: investigating the mediating role of maternal sensitivity. Infant Behavior & Development. 31, 688-695.

Laranjo, J., Bernier, A., Meins, E. & Carlson, S. (2010). Early manifestations of children’s theory of mind: the roles of maternal mind-mindedness and infant security of attachment. Infancy, 15(3), 300-323.

Lohaus, A., Keller, H., Ball, J., Elben, C. & Voeker, S. (2001). Maternal sensitivity: Components and relations to warmth and contingency. Parenting, 1, 267-284.

Lok, S. & McMahon, C. (2006). Mothers thoughts about their children: Links between mind mindedness and emotional availability. British journal of development Psychology, 24, 447-488.

Mcquaid, N., Bigelow, A., McLaughlin, J. & MacLean, K. (2008). Maternal mental state language and preschool children’s attachment security: relation to children’s mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding. Social Development, 17(1), 61-83.

Marvin, R. & Britner, P. (1999). Normative development: The ontogeny of attachment. En J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (eds.) Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications (pp. 44-67). New York: The Guilford Press.

Marrone, M. (2001). La teoría del apego. Un enfoque actual. Madrid: Psimática.

Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Russell, J. & Clark-Carter, D. (1998). Security of Attachment as a Predictor of Symbolic and Metalizing Abilities: A Longitudinal Study. Social Development, 7(1), 1-24.

Meins, E., Fernyhough, Ch., Fradley, E. & Tuckey, M (2001). Rethinking maternal sensitivity: Mothers’ comments on infants’ mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(5), 637-648.

Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, M., Das Gupa, M., Fradley, E. & Tuckey, M. (2002). Maternal Mind Mindedness and attachment security as predictor of theory of mind understanding. Child development, 73(6), 1715-1726.

Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, M., Clark-Carter, D., Das Gupta, M., Fradley, E. & Tuckey, M. (2003). Pathways to understanding mind: Construct validity and predictive validity of maternal mind-mindedness. Child Development, 74, 1194-1211.

Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2006). Mind-mindedness coding manual. Unpublished manuscript. Durham University, Durham, UK.

Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Johnson, F. & Lidstone, J. (2006). Mind mindedness in children: Individual differences in internal-state talk in middle childhood. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 181–196.

Meins, E., Harris-Waller, J. & Lloyd, A. (2008). Understanding alexithymia: Associations with peer attachment style and mindmindedness. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 146–152.

Ontai, L. & Amini, E. (2009). Predecting elements of early elaborative discourse from 12 to 18 month of age. Early Chilhood Research Quarterly, 25, 98-111.

Ontai, L. & Thompson, R. (2002). Patterns of attachment and maternal discourse effects on children’s emotion understanding from 3 to 5 years of age. University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the Chimpanzee have a theory of mind?. Behavioral and brain sciencies, 1, 515-526.

Prior, V. & Glaser, D. (2006). Understanding attachment and attachment disorders: Theory, evidence and practice. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Rosenblum, K., McDonough, S. Sameroff, A. & Muzik, M. (2008). Reflection in thought and action: maternal parenting reflectivity predicts mind minded comments and interactive behavior. Infant Mental Health Journal, 29(4), 362-376.

Ruffman, T., Slade, L. & Crowe, E. (2002). The relation between children’s and mothers’ mental state language and theory-of-mind understanding. Child Development, 73, 734-751.

Sharp, C., Fonagy, P. & Goodyer, I. (2006). Imagining your child’s mind: psychosocial adjustment and mother’s ability to predict their children’s attributional response styles. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 197-214.

Sharp, C. & Fonagy, P. (2008). The Parent’s capacity to treat the child as a psychological agent: Constructs, measures and implications for developmental psychopathology. Social Development, 17(3), 737-754.

Symons, D. & Clark, S. (2000). A Longitudinal Study of mother- Child Relationships and theory of mind in the preschool period. Social Development, 9(1), 1-23.

Taumoepeau, M. & Ruffman, T. (2008). Stepping stones to others’s minds: maternal talk relatesto child mental state language and emotion understanding at 15, 24, and 33 months. Child Development, 79(2), 284-302.

Thompson, R. A. (2000). The legacy of early attachments. Child Development, 71, 145-152.

Trevarthen, C. & Aitken, K. (2001). Infant intersubjetivity: Research, theory and clinical applications. Journal of Child Psychology, 42(1), 3-48.

Van den Boom, C. (1997). Sensitivity and attachment: next steps for developmentalists. Child Development, 64(4), 592-594.

Van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (1995). Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment: A meta-analysis on the predictive validity of the adult attachment interview. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 387-403.